The word Biryani is derived from the Persian word Birian, which means ‘fried before cooking’ and Birinj, the Persian word for rice. There are various theories related to the origin of this scrumptious dish. Many historians believe that biryani originated from Persia and was brought to India by the Mughals. Origin, history and types of biryani.

The Indian subcontinent has a history of foreign rulers, with each ruler introducing the country to various cultures and traditions as well as cuisines. The Turks, Afghans, Persians, and Arabs have left behind a rich culture of foods and feasts, while the Europeans have introduced the country to the popular vegetables such as potatoes and tomatoes. Even the tea we swear by had been growing wild in the northeast until the Britishers started its commercial production. Staking the claim to fame loudest among all such dishes is biryani. Traditionally made as mutton and chicken biryani, the dish was introduced to the subcontinent by Arabs and Persians.

Types of biryani-

There are several types of biriyani from different parts of India but we will talk here about the four most famous biryani in India and there recipes.

1. Kolkata Biryani

The myth, the legend, the Kolkata biryani. There has been a debate between the Hyderabadi and Kolkata biryani lovers for a long time now, on which is better, while both have their merits, the Kolkata biryani is simply the complete deal. There are multiple stories behind the creation of the biryani, but one of the most popular states, the nawabs in Calcutta not being able to afford meat, tried to recreate their Awadhi biryani. The biryani cooked with rice with a yoghurt based marinated meat, the aloo, and boiled egg along with light spices which give it a slight sweetness and saffron and kewra for the aroma. Striking a perfect balance between spices and aroma, with delicious flavor. It is the one of the cheapest biryani you ever found in India.

Kolkata biryani

2. Hyderabadi biryani-

Believed to have originated from the kitchen of the Hyderabad’s Nizam, there are two types of Hyderabadi Biryani – Pakki (cooked) and Kacchi (raw). The Pakki Hyderabadi Biryani involves cooking of basmatic rice and meat separately and then layering them together. While the kacchi Hyderabadi Biryani is made from the raw marinated meat (chicken or lamb) placed between the layers of basmati rice infused with saffron, onions and dried fruits, both are slow-cooked in a dough-sealed earthen pot over charcoal fire, which results in rich, aromatic and punchy biryani. If you go out for a meal with a local, more likely than not, you will have either one of the variants of Hyderabadi biryani. One of the most popular biryani recipes, this dish is surely here to win hearts. It’s nothing but half-boiled rice layered with fried onions, mint, cooked meat and cooked dum style. The vegetarian version is called Tahiri biryani.

Pakki biryani
Pakki biryani
Kacchi biryani
Kacchi biryani

3. Lucknowi biryani or awadhi biryani-

The crown king of all biryanis, Lucknowi biryani was created in Northern India by Mughal royals in Awadh around the 18th century, when culinary finesse rose to its peak in the royal kitchens. The rice is cooked separately in spices, and marinated chicken is added later in a separate layer and cooked in a vessel over a low flame in dum pukht style (meaning in a pot sealed with flour) for hours. Delicate whole spices like saffron and star anise play the role of showcasing, rather than overpowering, the rich flavors of the meat. The subtle fragrance stays on as an after-effect.

Awadhi biryani

4.Thalassery biryani-

Thalassery Biryani is quite dissimilar to other biryanis in India – unlike them, it is both sweet and savoury. The secret is the mild Malabar spices and the aromatic small grain rice called Kaima, to which are added generous amounts of sautéed cashew nuts, raisins and fennel. Thalassery chicken biriyani is popular among.Thalassery chicken biriyani is popular among food lovers in Kerala. Thalassery is a small town of Kannur district, the place is famous for a variety of foods especially biriyani. The unique taste and preparation style made this Thalassery biryani stand out from all other biriyani recipes.

Thalassery biryani

Things to be kept in mind while cooking biryani-

1. Marinate your meat at least for an hour. Best if marinated overnight.

2. DO NOT over boil your rice. Leave a third uncooked. It should be approximately 70-75% done. The question is how do you know that. Take a grain of rice in between your index finger and thumb and try squeezing it. It should not squish completely. Or else, bite into it. You will feel like it’s almost done, but the center will still be raw. Some of the biryani like kachi biryani, rice should be cooked around 20 to 30% only.

3. Make a potli with all the masalas, crushed and tied up in a cheesecloth and drop it in the water in which you are going to cook the rice. Strain it while you strain the rice. No one likes to bite into big pieces of cardamom or bay leaf. This way, the flavor will also be successfully imparted.

4. Make sure the meat is just done before you combine it with the rice for dum. That way, it won’t fall apart and remain intact.

5. To make fried onions, add salt to your sliced onions and let it sit for some time. Squeeze out all the water. Now stir in some cornstarch powder and deep fry. It will soak up the excess water and make it crispy.

6. While frying the onions in hot oil, strain before they become completely brown. They will continue to cook even after that.

7. DO NOT open the lid while the biryani is cooking. If you do that, all your hard work is wasted. All the steam will be out. Also, don’t open the lid immediately after it is done cooking. Let it rest for some time. Say, 10-15 minutes. I know it’s difficult 😂.

Thank you.


Origin, history and types of biryani
Origin, history and types of biryani

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Myself Gourav chatterjee I done my graduation from Institute of Hotel Management and persuing my MBA from william carey University. I worked in devyani international limited as manager and now im persuing my training from ITC panchwati kolkata. Im also a food blogger and the love for food from my side is never ending. I want to explore each and every cuisine in the world.

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